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GMOs in Chocolate
|Possible application of gene technology||Labelling|
|Lecithin from GM-soya||yes|
|Citric acid produced with the help of GM-microorganisms||no|
|Fats from GM-plants (for glazing)||yes|
Description of product
Chocolate is a product made from cocoa. It consists of various amounts of cocoa solids, cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder, lecithin and vanillin.
- A new EU guideline for cocoa and chocolate came into effect on 3 August 2000. According to this guideline, chocolate may contain, besides the cocoa butter, up to 5% of a cocoa butter equivalent. These are plant fats that can be mixed well with the cocoa butter. Butter or oils from Illipe, palm, sal, shea, kokum gurgi, mango kernels and coconut have been approved.
- Chocolate products containing a cocoa butter equivalent must carry a clear indication, i.e. "contains other plants fats besides cocoa butter".
- The addition of animal fats and their products that are not derived from milk are forbidden. The addition of flour and starch is also not allowed.
- Products that do not comply with these guidelines may not be labelled as chocolate. The term "Chocolate selection" is allowed .
- See also:confectionery, nut-nougat cream
Possible application of gene technology
Applications of gene technology are possible in the following ingredients that commonly are found in chocolate. However, the extent to which a particular product is affected by these possibilities cannot be stated with certainty:
- lecithin: addition of emulsifying agents is essential. Usually soya lecithin is used.
- sweetener: sugar
- flavour enhancer: maltol
- In fillings: fudge
- enzyme: lactase
For filled chocolates, chocolate bars and pralines further gene technological application are conceivable, as well as for specialities and dietary products, e.g.:
Bakery products, ice cream or sweets are often not coated with chocolate, but with a cocoa-containing glaze. This contains plant fats in place of the cocoa butter.
Genetically modified microorganisms can be used in the production of these cocoa butter substitutes, such as: